Chapter 12






H - Huath (Hawthorn) - Tree Alphabet / (─┴─) Line Ogham





NAME         Hector

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain

TYPE         chariot warrior / war leader

CULTURE      Goidel / Trojan

COUNTRY      England

REGION       Cambridgeshire



CENTERS      Troy (Gogmagog Hills)

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 13th c / BC 1240 (defeat of Troy)

BATTLES      Trojan War

RELATIVES    Priam (father); Hecabe (mother); Andromache

             (wife); Astyanax (son); Paris, Helenus and

             Deiphobus (brothers); Cassandra (sister)

ENEMIES      Achaean / Danann / Achilles

SEE ALSO     Achilles / Paris / Priam

REMARKS      Hector was the son of Priam, head chieftain of

  Troy.  He was their main battle champion during their war

  against the Achaeans.  During a combat Hector thought he

  had killed Achilles, his feared opponent, only to discover

  that he had killed Achilles's friend Patroclus instead.  As

  a result, Achilles went into a frenzy.  He found Hector,

  chased him 3 times around Troy, killed him, then dragged

  the body behind his chariot back to the Achaean camp.

       Although at first Achilles left his body for the dogs,

  Hector's father was able to negotiate the return of the

  body plus an 11-day truce to permit appropriate burial

  rites.  Hector's remains were burned and the ashes placed

  in a golden urn.  Hector's wife Andromache then married his

  brother Helenus, the prophet.



NAME         Helen

EPITHET      Fairest Woman in the World

GENDER       F

CATEGORY     rigbean (noble woman)

CULTURE      Goidel - Turdetani tribe

COUNTRY      Spain

TERRITORY    Lacedaemon

LANDMARKS    Esparteros Mountain / Guadalquivir river

CENTERS      Sparta

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 13th c / BC 1240 (defeat of Troy)

RELATIVES    Zeus (father); Leda (mother); Tyndareus (step-

             father); Menelaus (husband); Hermione

             (daughter); Paris, Deiphobus and Abartach

             (consorts); Sabrann (daughter); Polydeuces

             (brother); Castor (half-brother); Clytemnestra

             (half-sister); Agamemnon (brother-in-law)

SEE ALSO     Abartach / Agamemnon / Menelaus / Paris / Zeus

REMARKS      Helen was the daughter of Leda and Tyndareus

  (Tyndarus), chieftain of Lacedaemon.  It is most likely

  that they were of the Turdetani tribe of the Goidel culture

  that settled there sometime in the early Bronze Age.

       One night the beautiful Leda was visited by Zeus in

  the form of a swan, and from that union were produced two

  eggs, one which contained Helen and Polydeuces (Pollux),

  the other containing the twins Castor and Clytemnestra.

       When Helen became of age she chose Menelaus as her

  husband, and her father then turned the leadership of the

  territory of Lacedaemon over to them.  The territory was

  (and still is) rich in the highly-sought-after resources of

  copper, tin and silver, and was strategically positioned to

  control the gateway between the Atlantic and the


       Because Helen was considered to be the most beautiful

  woman in the world, she was the one promised to Paris by

  the goddess Aphrodite as a bribe.  When Paris, son of the

  chieftain of Troy, went to visit Menelaus, chieftain of

  Sparta, Aphrodite caused Helen to fall in love with the

  Trojan.  When Menelaus was away in Crete, Paris abducted

  Helen.  Helen and Paris went on a voyage, then spent 9

  years at Troy before the outbreak of hostilities, which

  lasted another 10 years.  When Paris was killed Helen was

  married to his brother Deiphobus.  Helen was also the

  consort of Abartach son of Lugh, and bore him a daughter

  called Sabrann.  Sabrann then married Cail (The 100-

  wounder), son of Lugaid, son of Leda.

       After the death of Deiphobus by Neoptolemus and the

  end of the Trojan war, Helen returned to Sparta with her

  husband Menelaus.  Menelaus and Helen interrupted their

  return home with 8 years of travel.



NAME         Helvius Cinna

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     poet

TYPE         popular poet

CULTURE      Gallic - Cenomani tribe

COUNTRY      Italy

TERRITORY    Cisalpine Gaul

CENTERS      Brescia (Brixia)

AGE          Iron (late)

DATES        BC 1st c

SEE ALSO     Gaius Valerius Catullus / Virgil

REMARKS      Helvius Cinna was a Celtic poet and a friend of

  two other Celtic poets named Catullus and Virgil.  Helvius

  wrote poems which were influenced by Celtic mythology.  He

  was killed by a mob in a case of mistaken identity.



NAME         Hephaistos


GENDER       M

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         god of fire and metal-working

CULTURE      Achaean

COUNTRY      Netherlands

REGION       Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Rhine Delta

SITES        Island of Lemnos

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 13th c / BC 1240 (defeat of Troy)

BATTLES      Trojan War

RELATIVES    Zeus (father/uncle); Hera (mother/aunt);

             Aphrodite and Athena (half-sisters/consorts);

             Erechtheus (son); Ares (brother); Hebe (sister);

             Artio (half-sister); Apollo, Belenos, Hermes,

             Tantalus and Aeacus (half-brothers)

ENEMIES      Troy

SEE ALSO     Achilles / Aeneas / Aphrodite / Apollo / Ares /

             Artio / Athena / Hera / Hermes / Zeus

REMARKS      Both Zeus and Hera, on different occasions,

  threw their son Hephaistos out of Olympus, and the falls

  caused him to remain lame throughout his life.  When he was

  thrown out by Zeus, he landed on the volcanic island of

  Lemnos where he established his main workshop, though other

  volcanic islands were also associated with his fires.

       Hephaistos was a god of metal-working and was

  responsible for the armor of Achilles the Achaean and of

  Aeneas the Trojan.  He was also credited with the fire-

  breathing bulls of Aeetes which protected the Golden

  Fleece.  He supported the Achaeans during the Trojan War.

  Torch-races were later held in his honor.



NAME         Hera

EPITHET      Of the White Arms


GENDER       F

SYMBOL       pomegranate / cuckoo / peacock

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         goddess of marriage/childbirth/women

CULTURE      Achaean


AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 13th c / BC 1240 (defeat of Troy)

BATTLES      Trojan War

RELATIVES    Ouranos (grandfather); Gaia (grandmother);

             Cronos (father); Rhea (mother); Zeus

             (brother/consort); Ares and Hephaistos (sons);

             Hebe (daughter); Poseidon and Dis (brothers);

             Demeter (sister)

ENEMIES      Trojans

SEE ALSO     Athena / Ares / Dis / Hephaistos / Paris /

             Poseidon / Zeus

REMARKS      Hera had the reputation for being rather jealous

  and vindictive, especially with the various consorts of her

  brother Zeus.  A plot with Poseidon and Athena to enchain

  Zeus was discovered with the result that she herself was

  beaten and chained.  Zeus came to her in the form of a

  cuckoo and they mated.

       Hera tried to entice Paris to vote her the most

  beautiful of the goddesses by offering him power and

  riches, and when he did not vote for her, she supported the

  Achaeans during the Trojan War.

       The peacock and the cuckoo were sacred to her, and the

  pomegranate was her symbol as it was a fertility sign and

  she was a goddess of protection during childbirth.  Statues

  to Hera were robed.  Every 4th year a group of 16 women

  would purify themselves with water and pigs blood then

  weave her robe.  Her statue at Samos wore clothing coloured

  white, blue and purple.



NAME         Hermes

GENDER       M

SYMBOL       Caduceus staff

CATEGORY     deity / vate

TYPE         god of (invention/messages/cunning/commerce/

             thieves/eloquence/good luck) / ambassador

CULTURE      Goidel - Lingones tribe / Trojan

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul / Arcadia

LANDMARKS    Vosges Mountains

SITES        Mt Cyllene

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 13th c / BC 1240 (defeat of Troy)

BATTLES      Trojan War

ACCESSORIES  broad-brimmed hat / winged boots / lyre / staff

RELATIVES    Zeus (father); Maia (mother); Aphrodite (half-

             sister/consort); Hermaphroditus and Pan (sons);

             Artio, Athena, Helen and Hebe (half-sisters);

             Aeacus, Apollo, Ares, Dardanus, Castor, Pollux,

             Perseus, Proserpine, Tantalus, Hephaistos,

             Apollo and Belenos (half-brothers); Atlas


ENEMIES      Acheans

SEE ALSO     Aphrodite / Apollo / Ares / Artio / Athena /

             Belenos / Helen / Hephaistos / Zeus

REMARKS      Hermes was born on Mt Cyllene in Arcadia and

  immediately began his career as a thief, stealing Apollo's

  oxen on the first day of his life.  He became known as the

  god of thieves as his list of trophies increased: he stole

  Poseidon's trident, Aphrodite's girdle and Ares' sword.

  Zeus was so impressed with these feats that he employed him

  to be his messenger, and Hermes acquired the symbol of

  winged boots.

       In his role of ambassador he was also known as the god

  of eloquence.  He invented the lyre, and in reward was

  given Apollo's staff (Caduceus).  He was able to accomplish

  the difficult task of slaying Argus, the 100-eyed being

  which guarded Io.  Zeus had already changed it into a cow,

  but only 2 of the being's eyes slept at any one time.

  Hermes lulled all of them to sleep with his lyre.

  Afterwards, Hera put the eyes on the tail of her sacred


       Hermes was also responsible with delivering the dead

  to the Netherworld.  He supported the Trojans during the

  Trojan War.



NAME         Herne

EPITHET      Herne the Hunter

GENDER       M

SYMBOL       horned man on a horned horse

CATEGORY     deity / hunter

TYPE         god of the wild hunt / god of animal fertility

CULTURE      Briton

COUNTRY      England

SITES        Windsor Great Park

ACCESSORIES  black horse / pack of hounds

SEE ALSO     Cernunnos / Gwynn ap Nudd

REMARKS      Herne the Hunter was a god of the wild hunt.  He

  was dressed in the hide of a stag and had a stag skull with

  antlers on his head.  He rode a black horse with horns, and

  had a pack of hounds to assist him on his hunt.  He was

  surrounded by a phosphoric blue light.

       The ghost of Herne still haunts Windsor Great Park and

  was associated with a great oak blown down on August 31, AD

  1863.  The characteristics and name share a common theme

  with Cernunnos and Gwynn ap Nudd.



NAME         Heveydd

EPITHET      Heveydd Hen (Heveydd the Ancient) / Master of

             the Wand

ALTERNATIVE  Havgan / Hefeydd / Hyfaidd

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain / ovate

TYPE         supernatural / sorcerer

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Wales

REGION       Isle of Man

TERRITORY    The Otherworld - The Underworld (Annwn)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

RELATIVES    Rhiannon (daughter)

ENEMIES      Arawn / Pwyll

SEE ALSO     Amaethon / Arawn / Gwyddion / Math / Pwyll /


REMARKS      Heveydd was an ovate from the Isle of Man

  (Annwn) and he and Math were accused of releasing storms

  that caused the sea to lash the land.  Gwyddion and

  Amaethon built a dyke that kept the sea out.

       Heveydd fought a yearly ritual combat with Arawn,

  another ovate from Annwn.  The two warriors were of equal

  power and every year the battle ended in a draw.  One year

  when the two warriors were fighting from the backs of their

  horses, Arawn's sword split the boss of Heveydd's shield in

  two and he went flying backwards over the rear of his

  horse, landing on the ground.

       Heveydd suspected he was fighting someone else in the

  guise of Arawn and tried to trick him into hitting him

  again.  The second strike against him would release his

  supernatural powers and he would be unbeatable, but whoever

  his combatant was, he did not strike again and Heveydd




NAME         Hoel

EPITHET      Hoel the Great (Hywel Mawr)

ALTERNATIVE  Hywel (Welsh)

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     hero / warrior / Brenin

TYPE         head chieftain

CULTURE      Cymry (tribes that fight side by side)

COUNTRY      France / England

TERRITORY    Armorica


SITES        Southhampton / Caerleon-on-Usk (Kaerusk) /

             Helena's Tomb (Mont-Saint-Michel) / Alclud

AGE          Post-Roman

DATES        AD 6th c

RELATIVES    Anne (mother); Boudicius (father); Arthur

             (cousin); Constans, Aurelius and Uther (uncles)

             Helena (niece)

ENEMIES      Germani / Picts / Scots / Danes / Norse

SEE ALSO     Arthur / Aurelius / Cador / Gwalchmai mab Gwyar

             / Uther

REMARKS      Hoel was head chieftain of the Britons of

  Aremorica, the one territory in Gaul that managed to stay

  free of the Roman yoke.  When his cousin Arthur sent him a

  message asking for help to rid England and Wales of the

  invading Celtic and Germani tribes, Hoel left Aremorica

  with a fleet carrying 15,000 horse-warriors and landed at


       Hoel and Arthur then marched on present-day Lincoln

  and put the invaders to flight.  The warriors of the

  Germani sailed around the island, landed at Totnes and then

  marched to Bath, killing and destroying all the way.  Hoel

  was recovering from sickness in Alclud when it was attacked

  by Picts and Scots.  Hoel held off the attackers until

  Arthur and Cador arrived with reinforcements and helped him

  drive them away.

       After the islands of Britain and Ireland had been

  brought under the control for Arthur, Hoel and his troops

  set sail for Gaul.  He took command of one half of the army

  and led them into the territory of the Poitevins in

  Aquitanica where they fought against warriors of a

  chieftain named Guitard.  After many battles, Hoel defeated

  Guitard and brought the territory under his control.  He

  then went back to England for the feast Arthur had planned

  at his camp at Caerleon-on-Usk.  During a discussion of the

  Roman demand that Arthur and his people pay tribute, Hoel

  praised Arthur's speech which suggested that maybe Rome

  should pay tribute to them.

       When the army of Britons returned to Gaul to do battle

  with troops of the decaying Roman empire, Hoel was informed

  that his niece had been captured by a giant from Spain.

  Forces loyal to him had the giant surrounded but none had

  returned from trying to rescue her.  Arthur challenged the

  giant to combat and won, but too late to save the maiden.

  Hoel buried his niece under a tumulus on the peak of Mont-


       Hoel was put in command of the fourth division of

  Celtic warriors, with Gwalchmai as his second-in-command.

  Their division faced the first charge of the Roman legions

  and were slowly being pushed back by the numerically-

  superior force.  Arthur, who had been holding his division

  in reserve, then added his troops and the combined forces

  put the Romans to flight.  Gwalchmai returned to Britain

  with Arthur and Hoel stayed in France.  Hoel gained a

  reputation as a peace-maker and became known as Hoel the




NAME         Hu Gardarn

EPITHET      The Bold Deliverer / The Mighty Inspector

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     deity / hero / ovate / guide

TYPE         god of the druid / historical poet

CULTURE      Pictish

COUNTRY      Turkey / France / Switzerland / Germany /


REGION       Brittany / Yorkshire

TERRITORY    Thrace / Gaul / Llydaw / Pretani Island / Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Mediterranean / North Sea - Mor Tawch (Ocean of

             Mist) / Loire

SITES        The Land of Hav (Land of Summer) / Gogmagog

             Hills (Troy)

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 15th-13th c / BC 13th c


ENEMIES      Trojans

SEE ALSO     Gogmagog

REMARKS      During the time when the Sea People were

  terrorizing the eastern Mediterranean, Hu Gardarn gathered

  together a group of the warriors and led them to the Land

  of Hav (Land of Summer) around present-day Istanbul where

  he divided them into tribes (Defrobani - awaken the

  banners).  Sometime around BC 15th-13th century he guided

  them from Turkey across the continent of Europe to the

  North Sea - Mor Tawch (Ocean of Mist) where they split into

  two major groups.

       One group of tribes travelled south, settling in Gaul,

  from the Bodensee in Switzerland to the Loire river in

  Llydaw (Brittany).  The second group settling in the

  Danube, Rhine and Main area and in BC 13th century warriors

  of the tribes joined with the Achaean forces that crossed

  to present-day England and helped destroyed Troy (Gogmagog

  Hills).  The old Goidel island came under the control of

  the invaders and became known as the Pretani Island (Ynys

  Prydain) or Island of the Picts.

       Hu Gardarn had shown his people how to cultivate the

  land.  He used his oxen to repair the lake so it would not

  burst its banks again and flood the land and he created

  poetry to preserve the memories of the people.